Sunday, October 31, 2010

A study in anthropomorphism: Disney's "Robin Hood"

Anthropomorphism is defined as the attribution of human characteristics to animals or non-living things, phenomena, material states and objects or abstract concepts. Examples include animals and plants and forces of nature such as winds, rain or the sun depicted as creatures with human motivations, and/or the abilities to reason and converse. The term derives from the combination of the Greek ἄνθρωπος (ánthrōpos), "human" and μορφή (morphē), "shape" or "form". With such a broad definition one realizes that anthropomorphism covers characters as diverse as Osmosis Jones, Mickey Mouse, HammBagheera, Draco the dragon, and the Pixar luxo lamps. All are anthropomorphic characters, but in animation when one mentions an "anthropomorphic character", they usually mean a very specific type of animal character design. And more often than not the first one that pops into most animator's minds is Disney's Robin Hood.

 
While I can't state definitively why Robin Hood in particular is seen by so many as the quintessential anthropomorphic character,  I can say that he is a classic case of form following function in animated character design.

The studio chose to tell the "Robin Hood" story with animals. A fox, known for being a clever, attractive, and thieving animal, was the natural choice for the title roll. But there's one obvious problem with animating a more natural fox (such as Bagheera, who was a very natural panther); he has to draw a bow.



This becomes quite a trick for a natural fox. His shoulder blades rest on his sides, not across his back, which won't allow him to comfortably rotate his elbow up to eye level while keeping his "forearm" (front leg) straight and horizontal. Comparative anatomy between dog and human skeletons shows us that this is just the beginning of a natural fox's troubles with the role:

His humerus is too short to allow him to draw the bowstring all the way back to the level of his ear, he has no opposable thumbs to allow him to grasp the bow in the first place, and his toes are likely too short to hold an arrow to the string. Plus, standing on what amounts to his tiptoes to do all of this becomes rather awkward.

Famed Warner Brother's animator Chuck Jones had a simple formula for turning the hind legs of animals into easily animated human-like feet for anthropomorphic animals:



Anything covered by the shoe became the foot, while the sock covers the ankle and calf. This is exactly how Robin Hood's hind feet were redesigned. The rest followed in much the same way; The humerus and toes made it halfway to human proportions, and his shoulder blades now rest across his back. In fact, the earlier Robin Hood designs left even more of the natural fox behind in favor of a more cartoony look:


 But form followed function again; Robin had to have a few serious moments in the story, so a slightly more "realistic" and less comedic design was chosen:


Though he's still far from being a natural fox in design. In fact, remove the clothing and have him stand on all fours and the design gets a bit weird:



Disney's Robin Hood is clearly meant to be bipedal. Most quadrupeds turned into bipedal anthropomorphic designs either employ the Chuck Jones design method when rendering the hind legs or, as in the case of many rodents and ungulates, they end up keeping their natural legs and often walking on their "tip-toes". When human legs are substituted it can end up looking either like a person wearing a costume or just something that's a bit freaky, as is shown by Rune Bennicke's delightfully odd "weird wolves":



In the end Disney's Robin Hood in a mix of mostly traditional animated fox with enough human anatomy to get through many of the same challenges that Erroll Flynn had to, including drawing that bow. You'll also notice that the muzzle of the character in the final film version gets slightly shorter over time than that in "model sheet #5". This is because animating dialog tends to be a bit easier on a shorter snout (Draco also had a comparatively short muzzle for a dragon):



As always; allow your character's design to follow the functions they must perform in the story. Doing so makes an animator's job much, much easier!


150 comments:

  1. What a great post, very insightful. I love this blog.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. article highly qualified friend .., thanks for sharing information, if interested please visit my blogs there is a lot of articles that may be read friend, Main thing is that you need to seo work If do seo for my blog http://variasiblogger.blogspot.com/ as my blog have 2000+ visitor and I want 15000

      read more :


      >> Panduan Tips Trick Mudah SEO dan Desain Terpadu Bagi Pemula
      >> Cara Membuat Blog Gratis di Blogger Blogspot
      >> Free Responsive Templates Download
      >> Download Template Free Jual Beli Online Updates
      >> Google Webmaster Tools verification site ownership
      >> Cara Mendaftarkan Blogs ke Alexa

      Delete
    2. The placement of what is suppose to considered the whole foot is an interesting way to solve that problem, especially more complex animals. Also the placement of shoulders to have the animal still keep it's look but still do human things was interesting as well. There is a clear difference between original animal and anthropomorphism.

      Delete
    3. Very informative! I particularly enjoyed the info about Chuck Jones' method of adapting the hind limbs. Makes a lot of sense!

      Delete
  2. Wow I learnt a lot from reading this. Thank you!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hey, I really like this blog and it was very helpful for me to thank you so much. Also, check out our blog. MX Player Pro Mod APK

      Delete
  3. Thank you for post and sharing this !

    ReplyDelete
  4. Thanks for the feedback guys. Much appreciated!

    ReplyDelete
  5. This is quite interesting, curiously, when I needed to explain to my mom what anthros were I referred to Robin Hood!

    ReplyDelete
  6. So far this class has been my favorite. I have loved these movies for years. I find it very cool to see the model sheets and how the characters are revised. My kids also find it cool that I'm looking at these animated characters as part of my school. ;-)

    without knowledge of animal anatomy the problem with a natural fox using a bow wouldn't have been solved like it was. It gives me another way to look at designing my animal caricature.

    ReplyDelete
  7. This is a great post. I don't think I would have realized this without you pointing this out...in fact, I know I wouldn't. Very enlightening. Thanks so much.

    ReplyDelete
  8. Replies
    1. Faceți clic aici https://romaseriale.net/ pentru a viziona episodul de astăzi. este una dintre cele mai bune emisiuni TV pentru distracție și divertisment. Tuturor romanului le place sa urmareasca clicksud , Seriale turcesti.

      Delete
  9. I'm not sure I'll do an anthropomorphic one or not, but I read this regardless. Thanks.

    ReplyDelete
  10. Awesome notes on the hindquarters, and I never noticed the changing of the nose size before! Thanks for the post!

    ReplyDelete
  11. This post is super helpful! I am learning to draw animal people, and was trying to figure out just what it was I always enjoyed so much about the Disney Robin Hood design. This post explains a lot f it, and I love seeing the reasoning behind the design. It's definitely going to help me change the way I draw.

    ReplyDelete
  12. Oh how cool--didn't realize that was a Chuck Jones solution.

    ReplyDelete
  13. Pretty interesting_ I wouldn't have thought to add shoes and socks to a four legged animail! The theory seems to work however- great post, very helpful.

    ReplyDelete
  14. I realized I might be drawing something anthropomorphic, so this helps in steering me in the right direction. Thank you.

    Also, Bennicke's "weird wolves are amazing! I must try that sometime.

    ReplyDelete
  15. Great article, it definitely gave me food for thought.

    ReplyDelete
  16. I think Chuck Jones concept of the sock and the shoe help me a lot in simplifying the anatomy of the animal and still keeping it within the context of the character. I also find this post helps with the holistic construction behind designing an anthropomorphic character.

    ReplyDelete
  17. Thank you for sharing this with us!
    -Heather Blauvelt

    ReplyDelete
  18. This was actually really interesting and reminded me why I am building this character and to think about the actions that this character will perform.

    Very nice post. Thank you!

    ReplyDelete
  19. I always thought the animals in Robin Hood looked a bit odd. It's clearer to see how anthropomorphism can make a character more appealing and how to go about it. Excellent post.

    ReplyDelete
  20. Not sure if I'm doing an anthropomorphic character or not, but I read this anyways. Very helpful info!

    ReplyDelete
  21. Noticed Robin Hood's legs still had a bit of fox anatomy, as did his arms. Nice read.

    ReplyDelete
  22. I see so many artists online that design things to look "pretty" without remembering that it must function properly in the world in which they live. I'm glad that my psychosis about things working is actually a good thing with animation.

    ReplyDelete
  23. info untuk para pengguna Massage Jakarta yang sedang mencari Pijat & SPA Panggilan 24 jam Jakarta bisa mengetahui info lengkapnya di Aries Spa tinggal telpon langsung diangkat gan... khusus pria dan wanita lho... Pijat Panggilan Jakarta langsung check aja deh untuk menikmati Massage & SPA Panggilan 24 jam Jakarta ini

    SPA Jakarta || www.massageariesjakarta.blogspot.com Massage Jakarta || Pijat jakarta Panggilan || Massage Panggilan || massage therapy/pijat keluarga panggilan || pijat panggilan 24 jam jakarta

    Aries Spa menyediakan massage therapy/pijat panggilan dan spa panggilan ke rumah atau tempat tinggal Anda di Jakarta dan sekitarnya.

    Kami melayani massage panggilan 24 jam, massage khusus pria & wanita dengan tenaga kerja muda, trampil dan profesional.

    pijat keluarga datang ketempat ,trima panggilan rumah,aparteman,hotel dijakarta.

    ReplyDelete
  24. Thanks for sharing this! Very useful information!

    ReplyDelete
  25. Really interesting to see what all went into Robin's character development! I will be sure to look carefully at the anatomy of whatever animal I choose this week before starting to work on its caricature.

    ReplyDelete
  26. Really interesting to see what all went into Robin's character development! I will be sure to look carefully at the anatomy of whatever animal I choose this week before starting to work on its caricature.

    ReplyDelete
  27. This also helps explain why sometimes it is hard to distinguish what type of animal it is...when the design gets so far from the actual animal and looks much too human.

    ReplyDelete
  28. I've seen this movie a thousand times, and it's only now that I see the shoe and sock reference! This is mind blowing practicality and functionality at it's finest!

    ReplyDelete
  29. Wow ! This is quite insightful ! I really liked the mention of Robin's snout getting smaller as the film progressed, I would sure like to re-visit the movie for it! I always had a confusion when it came to switching the anatomy of the animal scapula to suit an anthropomorphic need and Chuck Jones' technique definitely makes sense!!

    ReplyDelete
  30. This is very helpful. I need to bookmark this.

    ReplyDelete
  31. This is very helpful. I need to bookmark this.

    ReplyDelete
  32. Thank you, Jennifer! Chuck Jones' method for solving that pesky foot issue is very enlightening!

    ReplyDelete
  33. Thanks for the article! I had never knew there were two different types of anthro creatures. Thanks!

    ReplyDelete
  34. Thanks for the article! I had never knew there were two different types of anthro creatures. Thanks!

    ReplyDelete
  35. The sock and the shoe method is a great way to set the design straight and clear. Thank you!

    ReplyDelete
  36. This post has lessen my anxiety with approaching animal characters. Such great reference, thank you!

    ReplyDelete
  37. This was really really helpful, thank you!

    ReplyDelete
  38. The notes are very helpful. I will follow this blog, has very insightful material.

    ReplyDelete
  39. Very intriguing. It's interesting to see where they pushed the character for functionality purposes. Certainly you'd need to have him preform like a human as the story wasn't like the Jungle Book. That bit about the mouth is also insightful; never really thought how a long snout can cause problems with talking. When thinking of designing one's own characters, it seems important to keep enough of the animal that the audience can distinguish what it is, but put in just enough human to allow for animation. Thanks for the post!

    ReplyDelete
  40. I love the inner workings of animators! To see what goes on and how they create such incredible lifelike personalities out of animals is a wonder. So much thought goes into the smallest details. Anchoring Robin to Errol Flynn or adjusting his physiology to aid the story and animation are great practices to know.

    ReplyDelete




  41. Excellent Blog! I would like to thank for the efforts you have made in writing this post. I am hoping the same best work from you in the future as well.
    I wanted to thank you for this websites! Thanks for sharing. Great websites!

    Pubg APK
    Pubg Mobile APK
    Pubg
    Pubg Download
    Download Pubg Mobile
    Pubg Mobile Download

    ReplyDelete






  42. Excellent Blog! I would like to thank for the efforts you have made in writing this post. I am hoping the same best work from you in the future as well.
    I wanted to thank you for this websites! Thanks for sharing. Great websites!

    thop tv
    Blackmart APK
    GBWhatsApp APK
    FMWhatsApp APK
    Ac Market APK
    TutuApp APK

    ReplyDelete
  43. Very interesting into how much thought went into Robin Hood's design. Lots of problem solving for things we consider to be "basic understanding"

    ReplyDelete
  44. This reading was quite helpful, as im in the process of designing an anthropomorphic character at the moment. So much to consider.

    ReplyDelete
  45. This is really cool. I don't think I've ever given much thought to the anatomy being physically altered to create a believable human-type character. No wonder my past attempts with this type of design were a major fail! haha. Thanks for the info!

    ReplyDelete
  46. Download teatv apk for ios – latest version – Mod for Android to stream your favorite tv shows and movies conveniently and at no cost!

    ReplyDelete
  47. The article you have shared here very awesome. I really like and appreciated your work. I read deeply your article, the points you have mentioned in this article are useful DNS PROBE_FINISHED_BAD_CONFIG_ERROR

    ReplyDelete
  48. I am questioning that during this time you must deliver a try and this new app The Amazing Spider-Man 2 Mod Apk : which is now maximum trending app inside the global.

    ReplyDelete
  49. Fantastic info. Thank you so much

    ReplyDelete
  50. Very informative article! I’ll be applying this to my current assignment in class.

    ReplyDelete
  51. Thanks for the helpful info!

    ReplyDelete
  52. Thank you for sharing the infomation
    CHARACTERS

    ReplyDelete
  53. Thanks Admin For This App And Information FMWhatsapp

    ReplyDelete
  54. And that’s not all. The office can also make a face. The Met Office have introduced Lenny Faces to make it easier for children and parents to figure out what the weather’s like outside. And how.

    The Lenny Faces aims to ‘help tell the weather through fun characters rather than numbers and mathematical symbols’. And you thought your local weather forecaster was just some dude in a weird hat with a box of sad-looking thermometers!

    Wherever it all goes from here, it’s clear that we’ve all got a long way to go to catch up with those who’ve got tole table down thereAngry lenny faces

    ReplyDelete
  55. really helpful articles here. i enjoy very much your blog. keep posting for our satisfaction. Appvalley Tutuapp 3utools MovieBoxPro MovieBox MovieBox Panda Helper

    ReplyDelete
  56. Super-Duper site! I am Loving it!! Will come back again, Im taking your feed also, Thanks.minitool-partition-wizard-pro-ultimate-crack/

    ReplyDelete
  57. Great Blog!
    Thanks a lot for sharing amazing articles here.keep posting like thi.
    Download Mobpark Apk

    ReplyDelete
  58. Great Blog! Found interesting and informative.

    ReplyDelete
  59. I think your website is the best website in the world because there is a lot of good content available.
    Free Fire Redeem Code

    ReplyDelete
  60. I really appreciate your quality work, dear, and it looks great. Well done! Thanks for the tips! For me, this is one of the most useful bits of information. Your article was interesting to read. I found this interesting profile on this subject Click Speed Test. The click speed test measures how fast you click. The average time is 100 seconds. By increasing your click speed, you can improve your performance.

    ReplyDelete
  61. Alight Motion Pro APK
    Alight Motion Pro APK is the first Motion Graphics App by Alight Creative, Inc. With the help of this app you can do professional-quality animation, motion graphics, visual effects, video editing and video composing.

    ReplyDelete
  62. I prefer everything you fellas are usually upwards too. เว็บบาคาร่า

    ReplyDelete
  63. https://www.superluca168.com/
    https://www.superluca168.com/blog/

    ReplyDelete
  64. Your article provided me with useful information and a fresh perspective สมัครสมาชิก 123betting

    ReplyDelete
  65. I think your website is the best website in the world because there is a lot of good content available.
    Inshot Pro Apk

    ReplyDelete
  66. WhatsApp Apk is a most popular application. If you want to download WhatsApp mod Apk you can download it form this site.GBWhatsApp APK Download (Anti-Ban) Latest Version , Mod Apk Download

    ReplyDelete
  67. If you don't know about Bangladeshi newspapers or want to know about Bangla newspapers. See all Bangla newspaper in one place.

    ReplyDelete
  68. Blog Moumentec
    Free Download of the Latest Versions of Windows Programs and
    Android Applications; Plug-ins and Design Software; Operating
    Systems, 3D Design Programs, and Translated Training Courses.
    Data Development Courses

    ReplyDelete
  69. Free Download of the Latest Versions of Windows Programs and
    Android Applications; Plug-ins and Design Software; Operating
    Systems, 3D Design Programs, and Translated Training Courses.
    Data Development Courses

    ReplyDelete
  70. If you don't know about Bangladeshi newspapers or want to know about Bangla newspapers

    ReplyDelete
  71. Today we will review FMWhatsApp , which is a modified App of the original WhatsApp. This article will highlight the features, pros, and cons. So, you must pay attention if you want to grab an interesting read.

    ReplyDelete
  72. If you also have fond og listening to the muaic then must try deezer apk.

    ReplyDelete
  73. I would like to thnkx for the efforts you have put in writing this blog. I am hoping the same high-grade blog post from you in the upcoming as well. In fact your creative writing abilities has inspired me to get my own blog now. Really the blogging is spreading its wings quickly. Your write up is a good example of it
    บาคาร่า

    ReplyDelete
  74. Kinemaster MOD APK download and edit videos without watermark. it will enhance the attraction of users toward your videos. Increase your video engangement with kinemaster premium app.

    ReplyDelete
  75. You can Also download cracked softwares for windows and mac's.Check my web page: Free Amazon Prime Crack

    ReplyDelete
  76. While I can't state definitively why Robin Hood in particular is seen by so many as the quintessential anthropomorphic character, I can say that he is a classic case of form following function in animated character design.
    i love this story
    https://lingerdigital.com/thoptv-mod-apk/

    ReplyDelete
  77. download free action game for mini
    mini militia mod apk unlimited ammo and nitro free everything unlocked.

    ReplyDelete
  78. This is blog is completely informative
    Thank you for contributing. This blog has a lot of useful information. A fantastic piece; I am grateful and optimistic that you will write many more like it.
    checkout best apk mod for free

    ReplyDelete
  79. Thank you so much for providing such a great source of entertainment
    The images in this Blog make it more eye-catchy
    I want to inform all of you that you must keep in mind that make your internet privacy secure
    to protect them you must use a pure VPN for free.

    ReplyDelete
  80. Just an amazing blog am a big fan of Robin Hood since childhood
    Am really happy to see information about this
    Just great work, am here to appreciate you
    Is someone want to know how celebrities looked like after
    veneers
    , if yes then click on it and see complete information in it

    ReplyDelete
  81. Thanks for posting something like this. I love sharing good information like this. Follow up on the next work. เกมยิงปลาตายง่าย

    ReplyDelete
  82. "Very nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wished to say that I have truly enjoyed browsing your blog posts. In any case I will be subscribing to your feed and I hope you write again soon!
    https://projectorspoint.com/"

    ReplyDelete
  83. I appreciate you giving this information...
    Also Check Apental

    ReplyDelete
  84. Amazing to read. Do you have any information about insta pro apk download

    ReplyDelete
  85. original source claims that emma watson net worth is significantly improving over the past few years. Her mother is also lawyer and earns a massive amount from her contracts with other parties.


    ReplyDelete
  86. For all our readers that want to know how to download the app from Mac OS X, VideoDuke is the only tool you will need. This massive Moddriodd.com collection is considered by most users the best website out there.

    ReplyDelete
  87. The league has applied diverse ability competitions over the years, and it’s uncertain if or how they'll be blanketed withinside the eventual plans. The NFL has held a few model of the given that 1938.

    ReplyDelete
  88. Watch your favorite Doramas Teleserye, Doramas TV Shows online for free

    ReplyDelete
  89. Watch your favorite Doramas Teleserye, Doramas TV Shows online for free
    doramasmp4.be

    ReplyDelete
  90. wonderful blog of yours with wonderful thoughts thank... TutuApp 3utools panda helper

    ReplyDelete
  91. Thank you for the good space For us to come to share opinions It is really useful. Please encourage you to continue to create a good website like this.
    แนะนำการเล่นสล็อตบนมือถือ
    เล่นสล็อตมือถือ

    ReplyDelete
  92. Thanks for sharing. Would you please also share panda vpn premium mod apk

    ReplyDelete